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Academic Honesty and Plagiarism | Citation styles
 
The library's ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) Style pages will be removed after 30 June 2012. Please check with your subject coordinator for recommended referencing styles for university assignments and theses. Please refer to the guidelines on referencing on the ASCE website, the Civil & Environmental Engineering LibGuide or the Library's webpage on referencing for information on referencing styles.

Style essentials

This guide is an introduction to citing using the ACS (American Chemical Society) Style.

For further information, refer to Dodd, J., Ed.; The ACS Style Guide, a manual for authors and editors, 2nd ed.; ACS: Washington, 1997. Here is the catalogue entry

There are two key components to the ACS style...

  1. A citation, which appears within the text
    • EITHER by superscript number (referenced consecutively, beginning with 1): e.g.
      "...and on the structure of the chiral auxiliary.2"
    • OR by italic number - in parentheses (referenced consecutively, beginning with 1): e.g.
      "...and on the structure of the chiral auxiliary (2)."
    • OR by author name and date e.g.
      "...and on the structure of the chiral auxiliary (Andres 1997)."
  2. A reference list, at the end of the text

N.B. With numerical references, if citing a reference more than once, refer to the number used the initial time the source was cited.

Citing using ACS: an animated overview (new window)

In-text citation

Author's name

  • Author's name as part of the sentence:
    • "...described by Fraser9 rely upon..." (superscript) OR
      "...described by Fraser (9) rely upon..." (italic, in parentheses) OR
      "...described by Fraser (1997) rely upon..." (author name and date)
  • Two authors:
    • "...described by Fraser and Harris9 rely upon..." (superscript) OR
      "...described by Fraser and Harris (9) rely upon..." (italic, in parentheses) OR
      "...described (Fraser and Harris, 1997) rely upon..." (author name and date)
  • More than two authors:
    • "...described by Fraser et al.9 rely upon..." (superscript) OR
      "...described by Fraser et al. (9) rely upon..." (italic, in parentheses) OR
      "...described (Fraser et al., 1997) rely upon..." (author name and date)

More than 1 reference

Numerical system

  • To cite more than one reference at a time, put the reference numbers in increasing order (separated with commas).
    • Superscript (no spaces): ...in the literature2,5,6
    • Brackets (spaces): ...in the literature (2, 5, 6)
  • To cite a series of more than 3 references at a time, use a dash
    • Superscript (no spaces): ...in the literature3-5,8
    • Brackets (spaces): ...in the literature (3-5, 8)

Author/date system

  • Multiple authors - list in alphabetical order of (first) author, (separated with semicolons):
    (Fraser, 1997; Salmon and Alberts, 1989; Terrance et al., 1999)
  • Same author - list the name and year of reference - in ascending order:
    (Fraser, 1989, 1997)
  • Same author/year - add lowercase letters to differentiate them:
    (Fraser, 1989a, 1989b)

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