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Academic Honesty and Plagiarism | Citation styles


Your Bibliography (at the end of the essay or thesis) must include all the sources to which you refer in your text.

Fields of a book in a bibliography

Wittkower, 1961: Rudolf Wittkower, Bernini. The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque, London: Phaidon, 1961.

Wittkower, 1961:
This is the label field, of the kind employed in exhibition catalogues. This is set in bold for easy recognisability. Note that a colon is the separator. Because exhibition catalogues often have huge numbers of references, in a great diversity of items (essays, catalogue entries, etc.) all these items use short citations (labels) followed by page numbers and so forth, with the full bibliographic details in a general bibliography at the end of the book. The label can be added to an Endnote reference by filling out the field called 'Label'. This is done manually. In principle, you can label the item any way you like, though normally it is the author, or authors (to a maximum of 3), followed by a comma and the date. You can use labels for archival sites.

Rudolf Wittkower,
This is the author field, with first name first. Note that the separators between all fields except label and author, and place and publisher, is a comma.

Bernini. The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque,
This is the title field, and is in italics. If the title is in two parts, as here ('Bernini' is the first part 'The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque' is the second) the separator should be either a full stop, as here, or a colon.

London: Phaidon,
These are the place and publisher fields. Note that the separator between place and publisher is a colon. As a rule, include the publisher, but sometimes this is not practicable. Try to be as consistent as possible.

This is the year field. It is normally the last item in a bibliography reference, and so ends with a full stop.

Note that page numbers are not used for full book references in a bibliography, only for book sections or journal articles. (They are always used in footnotes, however.)

Additional fields of a journal article in a bibliography

Turner, 1979: James Turner, 'The Structure of Henry Hoare's Stourhead', Art Bulletin, 21, no. 1, 1979, pp. 68-77.

'The Structure of Henry Hoare's Stourhead',
This is the article title field. It is always enclosed in inverted commas, not italics. Do not confuse this with the journal title.

Art Bulletin,
This is the journal title field, and is always in italics.

This is the journal volume field. Do not prefix it with 'vol.' or anything else. Use arabic numerals, not Roman.

no. 1,
This is the issue field. It may be 'January' or something similar as well. Normally it is sufficient to omit this and simply use the journal volume field, although for newspapers and other periodicals not normally consulted in bound sets it should be included.

pp. 68-77.
This is the pages field. Use 'p.' for a single page and 'pp.' for a range. Do not use 'pg.' or, in this style, omit the 'p.' Note these conventions for abbreviating number ranges:

  • pp. 68-77.
  • pp. 168-77. i.e. repeat only the last two numbers, but
  • pp. 107-9. i.e. do not have a loose '0' for numbers under 10.

Ordering the Bibliography

  • The bibliography is organized alphabetically.
    If, on the advice of your supervisor, your topic requires a bibliography organized by subject, please discuss the most appropriate methods of citation with your supervisor.
  • The bibliography includes every item in the footnotes.
    Archival sources, interviews etc., should be included within the alphabetical listing of the bibliography.
  • N.B. The bibliography need not be annotated for theses.
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