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Academic Honesty and Plagiarism | Citation styles


Footnote numbers should be placed without brackets slightly above the line20 (superscript) at the end of the phrase or sentence or paragraph to which they refer.
If for some reason you are unable to produce superscript numbers, it is an acceptable alternative to place footnote numbers in brackets on the line (20) at the end of the phrase or sentence or paragraph to which they refer.

Footnotes are to be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis, and placed at the foot of the page to which they refer:

20. Wittkower, 1961, pp. 160-63.

  • Footnote number: 20.
  • Label - comma between author and date: Wittkower, 1961,
    (For all references, including the first, use the label)
  • Page numbers - 'p.' for a single page reference, or 'pp.' for a multiple one: pp. 160-63.

Successive references

Do not use ibid., loc. cit. etc.

If there two successive references are to the same publication, simply repeat the label:

21. Wittkower, 1997, pp. 8-10.
22. Wittkower, 1997, p. 11.

Referring to a footnote

If you are referring to a footnote, set out with both page number where the footnote appears and the footnote number:

23. Wittkower, 1997, p. 462 note 67.

Catalogue entries

In referring to catalogue entries, give both page number and catalogue number:

24. Wittkower, 1997, p. 462, cat. 33.

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