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Academic Honesty and Plagiarism | Citation styles

In-text citations

  • Cite all sources of information clearly and consistently.
  • Paraphrase with acknowledgement rather than presenting chunks of work in quotations.
  • Use quotes sparingly for succinct statements that make an impact.


The principal components required for an in-text citation are...

  1. Author(s) is the person(s) primarily responsible for the work.
  2. Date is the official publication date of the source.
  3. Page number(s) is the page number within the source: include whenever directly quoting or closely paraphrasing an argument or idea.

All references that are cited in the text, tables, figures and appendices must be provided in full in the reference list. No other references should be included.

Position of a citation

  • At the end of a sentence. e.g.
    '...in other parts of the world (Jones 1997) .'
  • In the middle of a sentence. e.g.
    '...in the results of a recent study (Allen 2002) it was demonstrated...
    '...the data presented by Smith (1994) illustrate...'
  • At the beginning of a sentence. e.g.
    'Moore (1991) simulated...'

Two authors

  • Example from the middle of a sentence:
    '...in the results of a recent study (Thomas & Beggs 1984) it was demonstrated...'
    '...Thomas and Beggs (1984) illustrate...'

Three or more authors

  • Cite the first named author followed by 'et al.'
    '...in the results of a recent study (Dickinson et al. 2001) it was demonstrated...'
    '...Dickinson et al. (2001) illustrate...'

Corporation or Association

  • Example from the middle of a sentence:
    '...an analysis of the statistics (Bureau of Meteorology 2003) indicated...'
  • Acronyms can be used if the full name is included in the text or in the reference list:
    '...an analysis of the statistics (ANZECC 2001) indicated...'

Same author, same year

If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year, use a lower case alphabetical suffix.
The same suffix is used to distinguish that reference in the reference list at the end of the document:

  • Examples from the middle of a sentence:
    '...an analysis of the statistics (Bourman 1993a) indicated...'
    '...further investigation (Bourman 1993b) contradicted...'

No named author

'Anon' should be used in the in-text citation and the reference list if there is no author:

  • Example from the middle of a sentence:
    '...supportive evidence (Anon 1976) was tested...'

Multiple references

  • If multiple authors make the same point, the citations are ordered chronologically:
    '...exhaustive investigations (Roy & Crawford 1977; Colwell 1983) concluded...'

Citing page numbers

  • If you quote or closely paraphrase a source, include the pages number(s):
    '..."inextricably linked" (Evans 1977 p.46) to lower...'
    This is an example where direct quotes might be appropriate since it is such a succinct statement. Otherwise, the use of direct quotes is largely discouraged.

Citing personal communications

  • Personal communications are only cited in-text, not in the reference list: :
    '...additional data (A. Smith pers. comm. 2000) tended to...'

Citing secondary sources

Whenever possible, go to the original source text. Don't rely on others' interpretations of the original source.

If you have not seen the original work, but are aware of it through another reference, provide citations for both references:

  • Example from the middle of a sentence:
    '...supportive evidence (Grieve cited in Dypvik & Attrep 1999) was tested...'
    '...this concurs with Reuter and Dallmeyer as cited by Vandenberg (1999).
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