frame top left
frame top right

Vancouver General Style Notes

References are presented in two ways:

A reference list (or bibliography) at the end of the work

In text citations

Three major systems of in-text references can be used: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year. This guide refers only to the citation-sequence (numeric) system of in-text referencing. In this system numbers are used in the text to refer to the reference list.

In Text Citations

Reference List

Specific Reference Types




DVD, Video, TV or Radio Broadcast

Electronic Sources

For more information:

This guide is based on Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21].


frame bottom left
frame bottom right