Facebook & Twitter post
Message posted on Facebook or Twitter: because online social media are not commonly used for scholarly research, the Publication Manual has not yet provided specific instructions for citing. However, the APA website gives the following suggestions (http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-ii.html):
Entry in Reference List
Screen name OR Author, A. [screen name] (Year, Month day). Whole post if short; a truncated version if long. [Twitter post] OR [Facebook update]. Retrieved from exact web address
For example - In text citation
Julia Gillard committed her government . . . (Gillard, 2011).
Irish writers are bucking the trend . . . (G@GuardianBooks, 2011).
- Use the screen name as it appears on the page. If, e.g., you were citing the screen name BarackObama, you would alphabetize it in the Reference List under B, without inserting a space. Julia Gillard would be alphabetized under J.
- BUT the APA blog also suggests, when the real name is clear, giving the real name in the Reference List followed by the screen name in brackets, and in the text citation just using the surname and the year. Choose what is better for your specific citation.
- Give the year, month and day, but not the time; if there is more than 1 post from the same author on the same day, distinguish them by adding a, then b, after the year, e.g., (2011a, July 13), then (2011b, July 13).
- If no date can be established, put (n.d.) If the date is reasonably certain but not recorded, you can put, e.g., (ca. 2007).
- Twitter posts are often short enough to provide the whole tweet in the title position, including a URL if relevant. Facebook updates may need to be truncated. They are not italicized.
- Give a description of the form in brackets immediately after the name of the thread, e.g., [Twitter post] or [Facebook update].
- To obtain the exact URL, click the date/time underneath the post to be taken to an individual update page with its own URL.
- In-text citations are more easily managed parenthetically.
- Because personal and friends-only Facebook pages are not retrievable by everyone, references to these pages should be handled as personal communications.
- A group Facebook page can be cited like a section in a larger work, e.g., When I was your age, Pluto was a planet. [ca. 2009]. In Facebook [Group page]. Retrieved December 16, 2009, from http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2207893888